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Welcome to the Official Website of

Dr. Jun Nara, Sky Business!




As an 'academic practitioner' based in Tokyo, Japan, I focus on my research on Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) and Macrocognition (click the underlined words).

The original concept of NDM is how the expert (in any field) makes a decision under critical conditions including high stake, dynamic settings, uncertainty, vague goals, organizational constrains and other risky factors. The NDM movement was initiated by Dr. Gary Klein, an American cognitive psychologist, and his research fellows: Drs. Judith Orasanu, Roberta Calderwood, and Caroline Zsambok.






Macrocognition is a holistic concept that provides a framework for studying cognitive processes of how human especially, experts, make right judgments and decisions in naturalistic (out of laboratory) settings. NDM is part of macrocognition. 

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With Dr. Gary Klein, a founder of the NDM movement at the MacroCognition LLC in Washington, DC, 2015; Very famous for his academic rivalry with Emeritus Prof. Daniel Kahneman of Princeton University, who won the Novel Prize in Economics.

With Dr. Judith Orasanu, who initiated the NDM movement with Dr. Klein in 1989. She worked for NASA as a research psychologist for many years. (NDM-14, San Francisco, 2019)

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The main purposes of my research and consulting services are

1.) To advance the understanding of NDM and macrocognition (and related factors such as expertise, intuition and insight),

2.) To develop new types of cognitive training methods and programs for various professionals and occupations.

However, there is also an educational purpose:

3.) To train the next generation of NDM & Macrocognition researchers in Japan and the rest of the world.'

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With Dr. Robert R. Hoffman, Senior research scientist of the Florida Institute for Human & Machine Cognition; The world's most pioneering researcher on cognitive engineering and Human-centered computing. (NDM-14, San Francisco, 2019)

While focusing on my research, Sky Business, Co. Ltd. and I are always willing to undertake any education-related inquiries from overseas clients such as

-agent services for Japanese educational institutions and publishers,

-developing educational programs and seminars,

-English-Japanese translation / interpretation, etc.

For your inquiries, please feel free to contact me by email at

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