In terms of information processing, there are many differences between human expert and machine. One of the most crucial facts I recently found out through my own investigation is that human experts can process the information they perceive through both macro- and micro- perspectives.
Macro-perspective usually works when we view the target holistically. Micro-perspective works when we see certain part of the target analytically. For instance, we can look at the forest as well as a tree simultaneously. Experts in any field can make judgments through these two perspectives whereas novices and amateurs tend to depend on either one of the two.
Recently, I had a small study group with acupuncture doctors at the clinic. I had a chance to compare two acupuncturists: Mentor with more than 15 years clinical experience and his staff with 5 years. I became a mock patient and asked them to do pulse diagnosis. What we found out was that the less experience acupuncturists only focused on the condition of the pulse. However, the more experienced acupuncturist could diagnosis my health condition holistically while taking my pulse.
Another example would be a football coach. Well-experienced coach can evaluate the performance of each player while grasping the flow of the game. Less experienced coach would pay his/her attention to certain players. Or, the coach may figure out how the game is going on but cannot evaluate each of the players at all.
Also, I already pointed out in my first Japanese book about experts & artificial intelligence (AI) that we employ intuitive thinking process while viewing the target from macro-perspective. We tend to apply logical and analytical thinking process when we view the target in micro-perspective.
Again, parallel information processing from both macro- and micro-perspectives is one of the condition for expertise.